TOPIC: Sustainable Development and Advancement of Women and Children in Africa
The General Assembly (GA) occupies a central position as the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations. GA, comprising of 193 members, provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of all international issues. The Assembly also continues to play a leading role in advancing the principles and purposes of the United Nations. All UN Member States are represented in the General Assembly. Each Member State has one vote. Decisions on such key issues as international peace and security, admitting new members and the UN budget are decided by a two-thirds majority. Other matters are decided by a simple majority. Many decisions are reached by consensus without a formal vote.
TOPIC: Investing In Adolescents To Break Cycles of Poverty and Inequity Across Culture
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), originally known as the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund and now renamed as United Nations Children’s Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly in 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries that had been devastated by World War II. UNICEF is now the biggest international organization working for children, with presence in 192 countries. UNICEF’s action is guided by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, the single most internationally ratified document in the world. Children is defined by UNICEF as “a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier”. Early adolescence occurs partially during childhood and it is therefore part of UNICEF’s responsibility to work for their rights. Poverty cycles occur when poverty once started becomes inevitable unless there is outside intervention. Health and education in adolescence can be considered the main opportunities to break poverty cycles in developing and developed countries alike. The task of UNICEF in this BAIMUN edition will be to understand how diverse culture sensibilities and different stages of development affect poverty cycles and adolescents.
TOPIC: Expanding and Developing Sustainable Tourism
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations specialized agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. Found in 1974 and with headquarters in Madrid, Spain, the UNWTO is the United Nations response to the growing importance of tourism internationally as a tool of development and opportunity. UNWTO promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge and tourism policies worldwide. It encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the tourism industry. Since the 2000s, tourism has become a substantial source of capital and development for countries around the globe, it has created millions of jobs and improved salaries and living conditions for millions of citizens. Nevertheless, the high levels of pollution that it produces, tourism activities account for more than 8% of the global CO2 emissions, and the possible negative effects mass tourism can have in culture, the environment and the local population call for international action. Sustainable tourism aims to correct these problems offering tourism options that can be sustained in the long term.
TOPIC: Improving quality education in rural areas
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, also known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations November 16, 1945 as a result of the damage and massacres of the Second World War. Its objective, according to its constitutive act, is “to contribute to the maintenance of peace and security by strengthening, through education, science and culture”. It aims to collaborate among nations, and ensure universal respect for justice, of the law, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, regardless of race, sex, language or religion. The UNESCO headquarters are located in Paris (France); it has 193 member states and it is normally seen as the main cultural and education institution of the United Nations. UNESCO is known for its World Heritage list for material, cultural and natural heritage. A list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity was also developed from 2001 to 2006.
Economists, social scientists, politicians and empirical data all agree that education has a crucial role in the development of a country. A country’s social and economic developments depend directly on the education levels of workforce. Education is an essential asset for economic and human development of individuals, communities, families and whole countries. Educational authorities all through explore tools to assess the quality of the educational
outcome by measuring the effectiveness of the components of educational systems, and search the ways to make educational reforms. The main deficiencies in national education systems can be especially found in rural areas: financial difficulties, shortage of teachers and training, and lack of school buildings and other facilities make up some of the main issues. A lack of economic and demographic growth in these rural areas may push lawmakers to focus their action in big cities and agglomerations. The Sustainable Development Goal number 4, “Quality education” pays special attention to rural areas in its targets
TOPIC: Building Health Infrastructure in Developing Countries.
The World Health Organization is an organization established by the United Nations on April 7th, 1948 with the signing of its constitution by 61-member nations in 1946. The World Health Organization has devoted itself for the development of international public health and sanitation.
The Head office of the World Organization is located in Geneva, Switzerland. All WHO operations are coordinated with over 150 offices in 150 nations of the world. The WHO’s main priorities include that of the management of communicable diseases such as HIV, AIDS, Malaria and Ebola and also the management of non – communicable diseases such as Cancers and Heart Diseases. Special attention has also been drawn towards the development of reproductive health in the world. The research agenda of is also set by the WHO in order to engage in research for the production of viable and long-term cure for the diseases under the WHO watch list. The International standards and benchmarks of health facilities and medications are also set up by the World Health Organization as a means of improving the access of quality medication to all. The WHO functions through the donations of the member nations and small commitments by private institutions.
The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the decision-making body of the WHO and is responsible for the determination of the policies of the WHO, appointment of the Director General, supervision of the financial policies and reviewing and approving the programme budget. The WHA working in tandem with the WHO has been able to successfully respond to the Cholera Outbreak in Syria, The Yellow Fever Outbreak in Brazil, preventing the spread of polio in Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon and Niger adding to the success story of the WHA and Who in recent times proving to be an effective and capable organization
TOPIC: The Impact of Agricultural Practices on The Environment.
The United Nations Environment Programme is a United Nations agency that makes decisions and policy on global environmental issues around the world. They assess environmental trends on many levels of governance in order to influence nations to enact environmental policies that are sustainable. Overall, the UNEP seeks to create a sustainable future by addressing global environmental problems. It is the main environmental
authority worldwide that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the meaningful
implementation of the sustainable development within the United Nations, and serves as an
authoritative defender for the global environment. Its mission is to provide leadership and
encourage others in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and empowering nations and people to improve their quality of life without compromising future generations. UNEP’s headquarters are located in Nairobi, Kenya.